Register Mono / F# executables on Linux

It is kind of inconvenient to have to type ‘mono foo.exe’ every time you want to execute a mono executable on Linux. However, Linux offers a kernel module ‘binfmt_misc’ which allows to register customer binary formats and define how they shall be executed. Below is a daemon script for OpenSuSE 11.4 which registers automatically during startup Mono exeutables (derived from /etc/init.d/java_binfmt_misc).

You need to perform the following steps to register Mono (includes F#) executables:

1. Create /etc/init.d/mono_binfmt_misc from text below

2. Create link to script

> ln -s /etc/init.d/mono_binfmt_misc /usr/sbin/rcmono_binfmt_misc

3. Start daemon

> rcmono_binfmt_misc start

4. Activate daemon for default runlevels (3 & 5)

> chkconfig mono_binfmt_misc

5. Test if it works by calling a mono executable (without calling mono explicitly):

> /usr/lib/mono/4.0/xsp4.exe
xsp4
Listening on address: 0.0.0.0
Root directory: ./2sharp4u
Listening on port: 8080 (non-secure)
Hit Return to stop the server.

File contents /etc/init.d/mono_binfmt_misc:

#!/bin/sh
#
#     Template SUSE system startup script for example service/daemon mono.binfmt_misc
#     Copyright (C) 1995--2005  Kurt Garloff, SUSE / Novell Inc.
#          
#     This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
#     under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
#     the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at
#     your option) any later version.
#                             
#     This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
#     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
#     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
#     Lesser General Public License for more details.
#      
#     You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
#     License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
#     Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307,
#     USA.
#
# /etc/init.d/mono_binfmt_misc
#   and its symbolic link
# /(usr/)sbin/rcmono_binfmt_misc
#
# Template system startup script for some example service/daemon mono_binfmt_misc
#
# LSB compatible service control script; see http://www.linuxbase.org/spec/
#
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          mono_binfmt_misc
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs
# Should-Start:
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs
# Should-Stop:
# Default-Start:     3 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 2 6
# Short-Description: enables the system to automatically execute mono *.exe files
# Description:       Start mono_infmt_misc to allow the execution of mono programs with *.exe files
### END INIT INFO

# see #271198
mono_binfmt_misc_status ()
{
    [ ! -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/status ] && return 4
    [ `cat /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/status` != "enabled" ] && return 3

    for state in CLR
    do
        if [ ! -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/$state ]; then
            echo Warning /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/$state is not present
            return 3
        fi

        if [ `head -n 1 /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/$state` != "enabled" ]
        then
            echo Warning /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/$state is not enabled
        fi
    done

    return 0
}

# Check for missing binaries (stale symlinks should not happen)
# Note: Special treatment of stop for LSB conformance
for file in /usr/bin/mono
do
    test -x $file || { echo "$file not installed";
    if [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then exit 0;
    else exit 5; fi; }
done

# Check for existence of needed config file and read it
#mono.binfmt_misc_CONFIG=/etc/sysconfig/mono.binfmt_misc
#test -r $mono.binfmt_misc_CONFIG || { echo "$mono.binfmt_misc_CONFIG not existing";
#       if [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then exit 0;
#       else exit 6; fi; }

# Read config
#. $mono.binfmt_misc_CONFIG

# Source LSB init functions
# providing start_daemon, killproc, pidofproc,
# log_success_msg, log_failure_msg and log_warning_msg.
# This is currently not used by UnitedLinux based distributions and
# not needed for init scripts for UnitedLinux only. If it is used,
# the functions from rc.status should not be sourced or used.
#. /lib/lsb/init-functions

# Shell functions sourced from /etc/rc.status:
#      rc_check         check and set local and overall rc status
#      rc_status        check and set local and overall rc status
#      rc_status -v     be verbose in local rc status and clear it afterwards
#      rc_status -v -r  ditto and clear both the local and overall rc status
#      rc_status -s     display "skipped" and exit with status 3
#      rc_status -u     display "unused" and exit with status 3
#      rc_failed        set local and overall rc status to failed
#      rc_failed <num>  set local and overall rc status to <num>
#      rc_reset         clear both the local and overall rc status
#      rc_exit          exit appropriate to overall rc status
#      rc_active        checks whether a service is activated by symlinks
. /etc/rc.status

# Reset status of this service
rc_reset

# Return values acc. to LSB for all commands but status:
# 0       - success
# 1       - generic or unspecified error
# 2       - invalid or excess argument(s)
# 3       - unimplemented feature (e.g. "reload")
# 4       - user had insufficient privileges
# 5       - program is not installed
# 6       - program is not configured
# 7       - program is not running
# 8--199  - reserved (8--99 LSB, 100--149 distrib, 150--199 appl)
#
# Note that starting an already running service, stopping
# or restarting a not-running service as well as the restart
# with force-reload (in case signaling is not supported) are
# considered a success.

case "$1" in
    start)
    echo -n "Starting mono.binfmt_misc "

    # Insert BINFMT_MISC module into the kernel
    if [ ! -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register ]; then
        if [ -x /sbin/modprobe ]; then
            /sbin/modprobe binfmt_misc
            # Some distributions, like Fedora Core, perform
            # the following command automatically when the
            # binfmt_misc module is loaded into the kernel.
            # Thus, it is possible that the following line
            # is not needed at all. Look at /etc/modprobe.conf
            # to check whether this is applicable or not.
            if ! mount | grep -q binfmt
            then
                mount -t binfmt_misc none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc
            fi
        fi
    fi

    # Register support for *.exe files
    if [ -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register ]; then
        # support for mono applications:
        if [ -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/mono ]
        then
            echo 1 > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/mono
        else
            echo ':CLR:M::MZ::/usr/bin/mono:' > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register
        fi
        echo 1 > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/status
        ## support for mono executable:
    fi

    # Remember status and be verbose
    rc_status -v
    ;;
    stop)
    echo -n "Shutting down mono_binfmt_misc "
    # De-register support for *.exe files
    if [ -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/register ]; then
        # support for mono applications:
        if [ -e /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/CLR ]; then
            echo -1 > /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc/CLR
        fi
    fi

    # Remember status and be verbose
    rc_status -v
    ;;
    try-restart|condrestart)
    ## Do a restart only if the service was active before.
    ## Note: try-restart is now part of LSB (as of 1.9).
    ## RH has a similar command named condrestart.
    if test "$1" = "condrestart"; then
        echo "${attn} Use try-restart ${done}(LSB)${attn} rather than condrestart ${warn}(RH)${norm}"
    fi
    $0 status
    if test $? = 0; then
        $0 restart
    else
        rc_reset        # Not running is not a failure.
    fi
    # Remember status and be quiet
    rc_status
    ;;
    restart)
    ## Stop the service and regardless of whether it was
    ## running or not, start it again.
    $0 stop
    $0 start

    # Remember status and be quiet
    rc_status
    ;;

    reload)
    rc_failed 3
    ;;

    ## removed see #271198

    #    force-reload)
    #   ## Signal the daemon to reload its config. Most daemons
    #   ## do this on signal 1 (SIGHUP).
    #   ## If it does not support it, restart the service if it
    #   ## is running.
    #
    #   echo -n "Reload service mono.binfmt_misc "
    #   ## if it supports it:
    #   echo /sbin/killproc -HUP $mono.binfmt_misc_BIN
    #   /sbin/killproc -HUP $mono.binfmt_misc_BIN
    #   #touch /var/run/mono.binfmt_misc.pid
    #   rc_status -v
    #
    #   ## Otherwise:
    #   #$0 try-restart
    #   #rc_status
    #   ;;
    #    reload)
    #   ## Like force-reload, but if daemon does not support
    #   ## signaling, do nothing (!)
    #
    #   # If it supports signaling:
    #   echo -n "Reload service mono.binfmt_misc "
    #   /sbin/killproc -HUP $mono.binfmt_misc_BIN
    #   #touch /var/run/mono.binfmt_misc.pid
    #   rc_status -v
    #
    #   ## Otherwise if it does not support reload:
    #   #rc_failed 3
    #   #rc_status -v
    #   ;;
    status)
    echo -n "Checking for service mono_binfmt_misc "
    ## Check status with checkproc(8), if process is running
    ## checkproc will return with exit status 0.

    # Return value is slightly different for the status command:
    # 0 - service up and running
    # 1 - service dead, but /var/run/  pid  file exists
    # 2 - service dead, but /var/lock/ lock file exists
    # 3 - service not running (unused)
    # 4 - service status unknown :-(
    # 5--199 reserved (5--99 LSB, 100--149 distro, 150--199 appl.)

    # this function returns the LSB compliants status code
    # see #271198
    mono_binfmt_misc_status
    # NOTE: rc_status knows that we called this init script with
    # "status" option and adapts its messages accordingly.
    rc_status -v
    ;;
    #    probe)
    #   ## Optional: Probe for the necessity of a reload, print out the
    #   ## argument to this init script which is required for a reload.
    #   ## Note: probe is not (yet) part of LSB (as of 1.9)
    #
    #   test /etc/mono.binfmt_misc/mono.binfmt_misc.conf -nt /var/run/mono.binfmt_misc.pid && echo reload
    #   ;;
    *)
    echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|try-restart|restart}"
    exit 1
    ;;
esac
rc_exit
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3 Responses to Register Mono / F# executables on Linux

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